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Mongol Empire
White Sulde of the Mongol Empire
Banners,
(Spirit banners

)

1279
Capital Avarga,

Karakorum

ReligionTengriism (Shamanism), later Buddhism, Christianity and Islam
GovernmentElective monarchy
Great Khan - 1206–1227 Genghis Khan

- 1229–1241 Ögedei Khan

- 1246–1248 Güyük Khan

- 1251–1259 Möngke Khan

- 1260–1294 Kublai Khan

- 1333–1370 Toghan Temur

LegislatureIkh Kurultai
CurrencyCoins (such as dirhams), Sukhe, paper money (paper currency backed by silk or silver ingots, and the Yuan's Chao)
Historical era
  - Established
  - Disestablished


1206

1368

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian:Монголын Эзэнт Гүрэн), Mongolyn Ezent Güren or Их Mонгол улс, Ikh Mongol Uls) was an empire from the 13th and 14th century spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia. It is the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world. It emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes in modern day Mongolia, and grew through invasions, after Genghis Khan had been proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. At its greatest extent it stretched from the Danube to the Sea of Japan(or East Sea) and from the Arctic to Camboja, covering over 24,000,000 km2 (9,266,000 sq mi), 22% of the Earth's total land area, and held sway over a population of over 100 million people. It is often identified as the "Mongol World Empire" because it spanned much of Eurasia. As a result of the empire's conquests and political and economic impact on most of the Old World, its wars with other great powers in Africa, Asia and Europe are also believed to be an ancient world war.[8][9] Under the Mongols new technologies, various commodities and ideologies were disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.

However, the empire began to split following the succession war in 1260–1264, with the Golden Horde and the Chagatai Khanate being de facto independent and refusing to accept Kublai Khan as Khagan. By the time of Kublai Khan's death, the Mongol Empire had already fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives. But the Mongol Empire as a whole remained strong and united. The Mongol rulers of Central Asia successfully resisted Kublai's attempt to reduce the Chagatayid and Ogedeid families to obedience. It was not until 1304, when all Mongol khans submitted to Kublai's successor, the Khagan Temür Öljeytü, that the Mongol world again acknowledged a single paramount sovereign for the first time since 1259 – and even the late Khagans' authority rested on nothing like the same foundations as that of Genghis Khan and his first three successors. With the breakup of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Mongol Empire finally dissolved.